Sugar Gliders


In January 2017 Highland Sugar Gliders imported our first 
Carminos and Carmino Het gliders.

Our Carminos

On January 20th, 2017, we imported our very first sugar gliders, Carminos and Carmino hets.  We had planned on adding three unrelated Carminos and three unrelated Carmino hets to our breeding program.  Unfortunately one female Carmino perished in the journey.  We are working hard to secure her replacement.

Currently we have 2 Carminos and 3 Carmino hets that are each out bred far enough to be considered unrelated.  This will give us a wonderful start to establishing out bred breeding lines of these rarest color sugar gliders in the world.  It is a very exciting time for us.

Below are photos of our new Carmino and Carmino Het gliders.  We will be posting updated photos in time.

Jaya, Carmino male, imported 1/20/17

Kaen, Carmino male, imported 1/20/17

Jariatih, Carmino Het female, mate to Jaya

Shinda, Carmino Het female, mate to Kaen

Rama, Carmino Het male, imported 1/20/17

Carminos - what is a Carmino? 

The Pink-Eyed Carmino color is the rarest color variation in the world, not only in sugar gliders, but in all captive bred animals.  And even though brown animals in the wild and in captive breeding are not rare, it is new color variation in sugar gliders.

Carmino coats are pale brown to pale golden brown with darker brown to reddish brown markings.   The eyes can be bright pink to clear brown.

There are two allelic varieties of Carmino:

Pink-Eyed Carmino - The eyes are bright pink, pinkish red, or garnet red.  The coat is light brown with darker brown markings.

Brown-Eyed Carmino - The eyes are brown.  The coat is light brown with darker brown markings.

Both of these color variations are allele mutations of the same gene.  Both have come up out of the same populations of sugar gliders in Sorong Province, Indonesia.   There are now stable breeding colonies  carrying and expressing  these color mutations in the wild in Sorong and they are doing well.

Below are photos comparing the two color varieties.  

Golden Brown-Eyed Carmino:

Above is HSG Wulan, Brown-Eyed Carmino, 100% Pink-Eyed Het.  She is the first Brown-Eyed Carmino joey we have produced.  Her father is Kaen (Pink-Eyed Carmino) and her mother is Shinda (100% Brown-Eyed Carmino Het).  

Wulan's parents:

HSG Kaen - Pink-Eyed Carmino (Kaen's eyes are bright pink)

HSG Shinda - 100% Brown-Eyed Het - Proven

Pink-Eyed Carmino:

Above is HSG Cherry, Pink-Eyed Carmino.  She is the first Pink-Eyed Carmino we have produced.  Her parents are Jaya (Pink-Eyed Carmino) and Jariatih (100% Pink-Eyed Het).

Cherry's parents:

HSG Jaya - Pink-Eyed Carmino (Jaya's eyes are garnet red)

HSG Jariatih - 100% Pink-Eyed Het - Proven


Historically, there has been some confusion and misinformation about Carminos and their origin. 

Carminos were originally collected in the wild by Danny Gunalen more than a decade ago.  Danny Gunalen is a world-renowned naturalist from Indonesia.  He breeds rare animals for breeders, for conservation programs, and for zoos and exports all over the world.

Carminos come from Sorong Province in Indonesia, and are a color variation of the other Sorong gliders which are already in our breeding population in the US today.

Contrary to the misinformation that has been promoted in the US, Carminos are not from Merauke and are not related to the larger Caramel gliders that come from Merauke. 

Carmino is not an allele of the Albino mutation.  Albino mutation is in the Tyrosinase gene, also known as the OCA1 gene.

Carmino is not an allele of the Cremeino mutation.  Cremeino mutation is in the OCA2 melanosomal transmembrane protein, also known as the P Protein, or Pink-Eyed Dilute gene.

Carminos should never be referred to as garnet eyed Caramels or Caramel albinos.  Carminos bred to Caramel gliders will produce cross-subspecies hybrid sterility and breeding these two different sub-species to each other should never be done.

-- All information regarding the Carminos, their collection sites, and their sub-species status comes from Danny Gunalen, who collected the originals, who breeds these, and who continues to collect these from the wild. 

Caramels are another sub-species of sugar glider, Petaurus breviceps flavidus, that are from Merauke.  Caramels should never be bred to our other US gliders because doing so introduces cross-sub-species hybrid sterility.   

Carminos can be bred safely to US gliders with clean lines.  Extreme care should be taken to avoid breeding them to sterile lines or to Caramel gliders.

There is no cross-species hybrid sterility with breeding Carminos to our other US gliders (as long as they are clean line) because they are, in fact, the same sub-species, from the same breeding stocks, from the same areas.

More about the Genetics of Carminos:

The genetic term for the Pink-Eyed Carmino color mutation is "rufous albino", or OCA3.  The genetic allele notation is Tyrp1^a.   

The genetic term for the Brown-Eyed Carmino color mutation is "recessive brown" and the allele notation is Tyrp1^b.

The Carmino mutations are both recessive and allelic to each other, meaning they are the same gene, slightly different mutations of that same gene.

Breeding the Brown-Eyed Carmino and Pink-Eyed Carmino Gliders

There are two allelic recessive color mutations of the Carmino.

 - Pink-Eyed Carmino

 - Brown-Eyed Carmino.  

Both color varieties come from the same originating breeding populations in Sorong Province, Indonesia.  Both color varieties have been collected in Sorong Province, and both have been bred in captivity.

Being allelic, the mutations are in the same gene and similar to each other.  In the allelic series, the Brown-Eyed Carmino mutation is phenotypically dominant to expression over the Pink-Eyed Carmino.  This just means that Brown-Eyed Carmino gliders bred to Pink-Eyed Carminos will always give you golden brown fur and brown eye color.

The allelic color series on this gene is:

Classic wild type Gray with Black Eyes
Brown-Eyed Carmino
Pink-Eyed Carmino

The gene that is mutated in these gliders is Tyrp1. It is involved in the final step of making the black pigment.

The Tyrp1^b mutation causes brown melanin to be made instead of black. 

The Tyrp1^a mutation causes brown melanin to be made instead of black and causes the bright to darker pink eyes. 

Both mutations are recessive. 

To get the Brown-Eyed Carmino glider with brown eyes you need either two of the recessive brown-eyed genes (Tyrp1^b) or one of the recessive brown-eyed genes and one of the pink-eyed (Tyrp1^a) genes. 

Tyrp1^b + Tyrp1^b = Brown-Eyed Carmino

Tyrp1^b + Tyrp1^a = Brown-Eyed Carmino, 100% Pink-eyed Carmino het

To get the Pink-Eyed Carmino you must have two of the Pink-Eyed Carmino genes (Tyrp1^a). 

Tyrp1^a + Tyrp1^a = Pink-Eyed Carmino

So, same gene, different alleles with the recessive Brown-Eyed expressing over the Pink-Eyed.

Tyrp1 + Tyrp1^a --> gray, 100% Pink-Eyed Carmino Het

Tyrp1 + Tyrp1 ^b --> gray, 100% Brown-Eyed Carmino Het

Tyrp1^b + Tyrp1^a --> Brown-Eyed Carmino, 100% Pink-Eyed het

Tyrp1^b+ Tyrp1^b --> Brown-eyed Carmino

Tyrp1^a + Tyrp1^a --> Pink-Eyed Carmino

In order to get the gorgeous pink eyes of the Carmino, both parents must carry the Pink-Eyed Carmino recessive allele.

Breeding a Brown-eyed Carmino to a Pink-Eyed Carmino will produce all Brown-Eyed Carmino, 100% Pink-Eyed Het offspring.

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